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Botanicals Labware Guide

Cultivation & Harvesting

Cultivation begins with determining the correct environmental conditions for the desired plant variety. Light, temperature, air quality, soil, nutrients, and water are some examples of variables to consider


Sample Preparation

Sample preparation is the method used to treat product prior to analysis. Typically this step of the process is done in a laboratory setting after harvesting is complete



Extraction uses chemicals or physical conditions (e.g. temperature, pressure) to separate desired compounds from the plant material. CO2 or ethanol extraction are currently the two most common methods.



Winterization is the process of filtering out unwanted waxy plant particles after extraction. The extract and a solution are combined and placed in a freezer overnight. The waxy particles resulting from the freezing procedure are removed using vacuum filtration. This process works best when low temperatures are maintained.



Distillation is the process of separating the compounds of a solution according to their boiling points. Short path distillation uses a very small condenser and low pressure to isolate desired compounds. The compounds are collected in recovery flasks.


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Resource Information


Chemical Composition:
Our glassware is manufactured from lowexpansion Type 1, Class A Borosilicate 3.3 glass that complies with ASTM E438 Standard Specification for Glasses in Laboratory Apparatus. It is low alkali glass with a typical chemical composition of approximately 81% silica, 13% boric oxide, 4% sodium oxide, and 2% aluminum oxide. It is virtually free of magnesia-lime-zinc group, and contains only traces of heavy metals.

Thermal Properties:
Borosilicate glass has a low coefficient of thermal expansion. Therefore, the thermal stresses under a given temperature gradient are low, and the glass can withstand higher temperature gradients as well as sudden temperature changes / thermal shocks. However, even minute scratching of glass surface can reduce its thermal resistance.

The 'Strain Point' (about 500°C) is generally recommended as the maximum safe operating temperature for United glassware. The glass may acquire permanent stresses upon cooling if it is heated above 500°C. Our glassware is annealed in modern ovens under strictly controlled conditions to ensure minimal residual stress.

Chemical Durability:
United glassware is highly resistant to water, neutral and acid solutions, concentrated acids and their mixtures, as well as to chloride, bromine, iodine, and organic matters. Even during extended period of reaction and at temperatures above 100°C, its chemical resistance exceeds that of most metals and other materials. Our glassware can withstand repeated dry and wet sterilization and offers good resistance against various chemicals, except for hydrofluoric acid, hot phosphoric acid and alkaline solutions.

Treated with proper care, United glassware will offer long-term, reliable service in the laboratory. Please contact us for detailed recommendations regarding heating and cooling, mixing and stirring, vacuum and pressure, cleaning, and safety precautions that must be followed while using glassware.

Optical Properties:
United glassware has a clear and colorless appearance, and shows no noticeable absorption in the visible region of the spectrum


United volumetric glassware is of high quality and manufactured to ASTM standards using state-of-the-art manufacturing and calibration equipment. The calibration laboratory is NABL accredited in accordance with ISO 17025:2005 standards

Class A:

Class A versions of our volumetric ware comply with USP (United States Pharmacopia) standards. Burettes and pipettes are calibrated 'to deliver' (TD, Ex). Flasks and graduated cylinders are calibrated 'to contain' (TC, In).

Class B:

Class B volumetric instruments feature tolerances that are about twice that of comparable Class A instruments (e.g. if a Class A burette has a tolerance of ±0.05ml, the corresponding Class B version will have a tolerance of approximately ±0.10ml).

Heat Resistance:

Volumetric instruments can be heated up to 250°C in a drying cabinet or sterilizer without any resulting volume changes. Never heat volumetric instruments on a hot plate.

Reference Temperature:

The standard reference temperature (i.e., the temperature at which volumetric instruments will contain or dispense their stated volume) is 20°C.


Our plastic labware is manufactured from high-quality resins. Treated with proper care, United plasticware will offer long-term satisfactory service in the laboratory. Please refer to the chart below for physical properties of United plasticware.

Resin Maximum Use Temperature (°C) Brittleness Temperature (°C) Transparency Autoclavable*
High Density Polyethylene (HDPE) 120 100 Translucent No
Low Density Polyethylene (LDPE) 80 -100 Translucent No
Polycarbonate (PC) 135 -135 Clear Yes
Acrylic (PMMA) 50 20 Clear No
Polymethylpentene (PMP) 175 20 Clear Yes
Polypropylene (PP) 135 0 Translucent Yes
Polystyrene (PS) 90 20 Clear No
Polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE) 270 -200 Opaque Yes
Polyvinyl Chloride (PVC) 70 -30 Clear No